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By the middle of the 2nd millennium BC, during the reign of King Tuthaliya III Kummaha was a frontier town between the Kingdoms of Hayasa / Azzi and Hatti. This is the site of a hittites battle against Karani, a king of Hayasa.

Later, CTH146 describes a military campaign of Arnuwanda in the country of Kummaha against Mita of Pahhuwa. Mita had done sworn oaths, putting his warriors of Aparhula, Halmisna and Pahhuwa available to the Hittite king. After his marriage, he had refused to deliver a defector claimed by the king, and had burned cities of the country of Kummaha in Isuwa, a Hittite possession. The men of fifteen localities, including Sullama (Solyma?) Zanzaliya (Zinziluwa?), Lillima, Hinzuta, Watarusna (Wattaruwa?), Tahhisa (Tarsa?), Halma (Walma?), were sworn in to the king, the queen and their descendants. The text mentions the ancients of the countries of Isuwa, Pahhuwa, Zuhma, Maldiya and the man of Pattiyariga. “Ancients” are usually men moved: Also, this reported shows an important population movements from North towards the South (Cilicia).

A tablet of Dur-Katlimmu describes the journey of a hittite caravan from Kummaha to Carchemish. The organizers were merchants of the king of Carchemish, Talmi-Tesub and the "Prefect" Tagi-Sarruma of Kummaha.

Regarding the Hittite texts, researchers mostly position Kummaha at the location of modern Kemah, actually located on the upper valley of the Euphrates, in the Turkish province of Erzincan:

Some néo-assyrian specialists have located a country of Kummuhi more towards the south, around the town of Samsat Höyük which would be the capital:

In the Assyrian archives, the country of Kummuhu corresponds to what was then called "Commagene" under the Romans. And Samsat Höyük was the capital with the name of Samosata. Researchers believe the suffix "Sat" is a iranian word meaning "Wellbeing" and "Samo" would be proof of the old name "Kamaha".

This is an ancient city with two locations. It is possible that at the time of the Assyrians, the name refers to another city that at the time of the Hittites: a shift of populations (under Mita of Pahhuwa) and borders, followed by a change of capital seems to have occurred.

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My notes of veracity :

Kummaha or Kamakha is Kemah during the 2nd millennium BC: 3/5

Kummaha or Kamakha is Samsat Höyük during 1st millennium BC: 3/5

Tag(s) : #Region:Anatolie, #Empire of the Hittites, #Kingdom: Hayasa-Azzi, #Kingdom: Isuwa, #Kingdom: Kummuhi

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