What were the cities of the Bronze Age ?
This site aims to find the names of cities excavated by archaeologists, relying mainly on ancient texts. Conversely, it aims to geographically position the cities and countries of the oldest writings.
This is the most successful archaeological excavation in terms of number of cuneiform tablets: about 17,000 depicting the life of the city and its territory from 2350 to 2250 BC, while most of the buildings and objects are from the early second millennium.
The discovery of a fragment of a basalt statue of a man bearing the name of a king of Ebla was the first sign of rapprochement between the tell Mardikh and the lost city. The translations of the texts confirmed the discovery of this town, which was also known in Mesopotamian texts, including the Uruk tablets. The translators were surprised to find cities names still existing four millennia later.
It is also the archaeological find that has raised the greatest hopes in the explanation of the Bible:
The main change in the contemporary discovery is the geographical deplacement of places of interest and power known to ancient times: while Mesopotamia was the center of attraction for scientists and researchers in the early 20th century, since, sites of Upper Mesopotamia and of the Levant have regained interest.
If the city of Ebla peaked in the second half of the 3rd millennium, it was rebuilt and acquired new prosperity of the early second millennium until its destruction, around 1600 BC. It is curious that no Mari tablet mentions Ebla. Yet the Hariri tablets give us a multitude of towns names of the Upper Mesopotamia at the time. This void can be explained by the using of a name other than that of Ebla: I incline to that of Subat-Samas, which means "Star of the god Samas". For many years, we know that Subat-Samas was not far from Tuttul and Qatna, including in many texts on the cattle herds that were managed by the administrative capital and grazed near Tuttul and Qatna. But the hypothesis of Subat-Samas for the ancient city of Ebla is mainly based on the tablet I 97: "Mount Hasam is 2 doubles miles from Subat-Samas. We need two lightly equipped servants taking your tablets and, at night, running inside the Hasam without be seen to reach Suda or Mammagira".