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In archives of Hattusa, CTH 51 and CTH 52 describe, among others, the borders between the countries of Hatti and Mitanni of Sattiwaza. It states that the Euphrates River was the border and, in the opposite direction, it was Mount Lebanon. All the fortified cities of Carchemish, Murmurik, Sipri, Mazuwati and Surun were given to Piyassili of Hatti. Also, most researchers believe that the towns mentioned were on the Euphrates, or west of the Euphrates.

This is why Jacques Freu and Michel Mazoyer tell us that Sipri was Sfire, the current Al Safirah southeast of Aleppo, Syria. There, stelae were found in Aramaic :

Although the stelae come from illegal excavations, and that Sipri is not mentioned, André Lemaire and Jean-Marie Durand in "The Aramaic inscriptions of Sfiré" confirm the origin to Tell Sfiré. A statue torso dated 15th century BC was found there. A survey of C.L. Brossé uncovered a tomb and the ruins of a fortified city.

Suprum is very often mentioned in Mari archives, so that translators of these tablets have positioned this town not far from Mari, upstream on the Euphrates. The tablet I7 proves the location on the Euphrates. It is talk of a palm transportation, cypresses and myrtle from Qatna that would have arrived to Suprum. Samsi-Addu, very directive, asks for a dispatching in 3 lots, one for Ekallatum, another for Nineveh and a third for Subat-Enlil. Regarding the last town, he asks for "a transport upstream by boat to Saggaratum, and after to Qattunan. From there that people of Qattunan take the trees on charriots to bring them up to Subat-Enlil". Today, there are two cities with name "Safirah" which can match. They are on both sides of the Euphrates, near Deir ez-Zor.

Supru is mentioned in the neo-assyrians texts of Ashurnasirpal II and Tukulti-Ninurta I, where a king Hamataya paid a tribute to the king of Assyria. In the annals of Ashurnasirpal II during a journey that led him to go down the Habur River to rejoined the Euphrates, Supru is evoked after Dur-Katlimmu, Bit-Halupê and Sirqu. Then the Assyrian king has visited Naqarabanu and Hindanu, on the opposite bank of the Euphrates. Here it is very likely that Supru is the same city as that of the Mari archives, Safirah al Fawqaniya situated north of the Euphrates.

So, during the Bronze Age, there were two towns with the name Sipri ou Supru, as today there are two cities with the name Sifre or Safirah.





My notes of veracity :

During the Bronze Age, Sipri was the present city of Sfire or Al Safirah, near Aleppo: 3/5

During the Bronze Age, Supru or Suprum was the present city of Safirah el Fawqaniya: 2,5/5

Tag(s) : #Region:Levant, #Empire of the Hittites, #Region: Mesopotamia, #Kingdom:Mari, #Middle Assyrian Empire, #Neo Assyrian Empire

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