At the beginning of the second millennium BC, a town called "Sinamum" is mentioned in the archives of Mari in at least 4 tablets. People of this city would have been displaced and repatriated. The proximity with Tushan appears in A.49 : "The country of Sinamum and Tushum is angry."
It is possible that this city has been translated by "Samum", situated in Idamaras, in L.87-627 of Tell Leilan.
The city also appears in the Hattusa archive, in a letter received by a Hittite king Hattusili, written by a king of Hanigalbat who mentions that he resides in Siname.
But this city is also mentioned in the 3rd millennium. Shu-Sin, king of Ur, has a third-year reign called "The year he devastated Simanu", a city positioned upstream of the Tiger, and a seventh year "The year he devastated the country of Zabsali". Shu-Sin has married one of the daughter of a king of Simanu who ended up being deposed. A deportation of people of Simanu is known. Also it may be these displaced populations during wars of Ur that couriers of Mari made reference .
In the 11th century BC, Sinamu is a stronghold located near the Arameans country.
So we can consider that this is the city that gave its name to Neo-Assyrian country of "Bit-Zamani", a component of the country of Nairi.
In the Neo-Assyrian texts, few researchers consider that it is the city called Sinabu. Several hypotheses have been suggested for the location: the cities of Pornak or village Fafih, which have recently been renamed, but especially the city Diyarbakir, which was called "Amida" under the Roman Empire.
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