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At the beginning of the second millennium BC, a town called "Sinamum" is mentioned in the archives of Mari in at least 4 tablets. People of this city would have been displaced and repatriated. The proximity with Tushan appears in A.49 : "The country of Sinamum and Tushum is angry."

It is possible that this city has been translated by "Samum", situated in Idamaras, in L.87-627 of Tell Leilan.

The city also appears in the Hattusa archive, in a letter received by a Hittite king Hattusili, written by a king of Hanigalbat who mentions that he resides in Siname.

But this city is also mentioned in the 3rd millennium. Shu-Sin, king of Ur, has a third-year reign called "The year he devastated Simanu", a city positioned upstream of the Tiger, and a seventh year "The year he devastated the country of Zabsali". Shu-Sin has married one of the daughter of a king of Simanu who ended up being deposed. A deportation of people of Simanu is known. Also it may be these displaced populations during wars of Ur that couriers of Mari made reference .

In the 11th century BC, Sinamu is a stronghold located near the Arameans country.

So we can consider that this is the city that gave its name to Neo-Assyrian country of "Bit-Zamani", a component of the country of Nairi.

In the Neo-Assyrian texts, few researchers consider that it is the city called Sinabu. Several hypotheses have been suggested for the location: the cities of Pornak or village Fafih, which have recently been renamed, but especially the city Diyarbakir, which was called "Amida" under the Roman Empire.

But only one argument justify this location : the proximity with Ziyaret Tepe. Under the Neo-Assyrian Empire, outside the cities that were renamed by a sovereign surname, it is rare to see a change of ancient city name.

Simanu was probably transformed into a tell during the Empire of Ur. Its former inhabitants appear to have been released by Samsi-Adu of Mari (II 9). Other place can be possible, such as "Samanyolu koyu" ideally positioned at the junction of two rivers or further north « Samantepe ».


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My notes of veracity :

Simanu, Sinamum or Siname was an ancient capital of Bit-Zamani: 3/5

Tag(s) : #Region:Anatolie, #Kingdom:Idamaras, #Kingdom:Mitanni, #Kingdom:Mari, #Kingdom:Nairi

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