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The name "Gubla" is found in the town "Jbeil" near the present city of Byblos, in Lebanon. This name appear in Amarna letters. Rib-Adda associates his city of Gubla with a Goddess. He is the author of some sixty letters to the Pharaoh Akhenaton.

According to those tablets, EA131 is a good example, there is no doubt that Gubla was in the land of Canaan. And the city was in danger.

Byblos is one of the few cities with a continuous occupation from the Neolithic to the present day. A book of Jean Lauffray describes the Byblos excavations. It comes from the unfinished manuscript of Maurice Dunand, a pioneer of archeology of this town. The ancient Phoenician city was found in the Crusader castle area.

The first human settlements start from 5000 BC It was then a small fishing village with farmers. The houses consisted of a single piece of oval or rectangular with rounded corners.

During the third millennium, Byblos became a place of international trade with Egypt and Mesopotamia. His temple Ba'alat Gebal becomes famous. In this building were found the most ancient hieroglyphic documents, fragments of vases offered to the goddess of Byblos by the pharaohs Cheops, Mycerinus, Sahure, Unas, Pepi and Khasekemoui.

During the second millennium, the city is more closely associated with the history of Egypt. In the necropolis of Byblos, a tomb, attributed to Abishemu I, was found untouched. It contained some obsidian vases with the name of Amenemhat III. The title of "Mayor of Byblos" appears on an Egyptian cylindrical seal awarded to Abishemu I. The tomb of his son, Ipshemouabi, was also unearthed. It is contemporary of Amenemhat IV. He wears the Egyptian title of "Hati-in-a-Kepen" ie "mayor of Byblos." It is thanks to these discoveries we know that Byblos was designated KBN, or Kpn Kupna by the Egyptians. Six beetles confirm the use of this title by the rulers of Byblos. On one of these is mentioned "Hathor, Lady of Byblos"

For more information, here are the main rulers of the city :

Montet argued that ships named "kebenit" were built by the Egyptians in Byblos. Also, it is now recognized that Lebanon has always been the main supplier of Egypt in wood, since the first dynasty. Which is to say that Pharaohs have always sailing in the Mediterranean Sea: for this they relied on the services of the ports of the Levant.

The relations with the New Egyptian Empire are well known through the Amarna letters and constant calls of Rib-Adda. Neighboring cities of those missives helped to reconstruct much of the urban geography of the region. EA79 evokes a particular position for the mayor of Byblos. He keeps only two cities : Gubla and Batruna. This latter is the modern town of Batroun north of Byblos. Other city names are not unanimously situated, such is the case of Sumur, an Egyptian garrison town.

The journey of Wenamun is a tale about ancestral trade relations. It helps to understand the relationships between Égypt and Byblos towards the end of the New Kingdom. This story tells of the difficulties faced by a priest of Thebes for the purchase of cedar wood for the construction of a sacred boat. Sakarbaal was the "prince of Byblos." Byblos is designated "Kupna".

French   Legend

My notes of veracity :

Byblos is the current name, which comes from the Greeks: 5/5

Byblos was Gubla in Akkadian: 5/5

Byblos was written "KBN" "Kpn" or "Kupna" in Egyptian hieroglyphs: 4/5

Tag(s) : #Region:Levant, #Kingdom:Canaan, #Kingdom:Phoenicia

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